Canada in the 1920s

The Twenties: Growth & Change
In 1921 Canada’s population was 8,787,949
Less than 1% were from Asia or the Caribbean
17% were born in Europe
White people could enter Canada easily but coloured people could not
Chinese Exclusion Act 1923
1928 Law limit of 150 Japanese people per year
Rural to Urban (country to city)
Between 1871-1931 Canada’s population went from mostly rural to mostly urban.
This is called urbanization
This changed the areas of education, employment, leisure, and consumerism
During rural 1800s eight years of education was enough
In the 1920s 1/3 of students went to high school for 2 years or more
Working class children left school between grades 6 and 8
Middle and upper-class families finished high school
In the 1920s 2% of students would go to University or College
Today 40% of Canadians have post secondary education
1920s had separate entrances for girls and boys
Boys learned trades, girls learned to cook or become secrataries
Lots of JOBS in the 1920s!  Most for men.
¾ of all factory jobs in Canada were held by men in 1921
Most women had a job between their school years and marriage
The New Consumerism
1910 Niagara Falls used to make hydroelectricity
Electricity was
   the way people
Gas and Electric Stoves
Electric Toaster
Electric Vacuum Cleaners
Electric Washing Machines
Phonographs (record players)
We have come a long way!
Cost was $400
Half of Canadians could afford a car
Changing Social Values
The Roaring Twenties – time between WWI and the Great Depression
Feeling of freedom, excitement, and a great economy
Women in Politics
Five women ran for office in 1921 election, one was elected.
Agnes Macphail
Spent 25 years in politics
Minimum wage
Social benefits
Prison reform
Equal status for women
The Persons Case
Only “fit and qualified persons” could be senators
Group of Alberta women – The Famous Five said women are persons
Supreme court said no!
Famous Five challenged it and won
Cairine Wilson – first woman senator of Canada
W.L. Mackenzie King unveiled plaque to the Valiant 5 in the Person's Case
New Popular Culture
Flapper:  young woman who dressed and acted in an unconventional way.
They drove cars
They did the Charleston – fast jazz dance
They smoked cigarettes
By 1929 80% of radio programs were American
New music – JAZZ
1927 – “Talkies” invented (movies with sound)
Five major American studios produced 90% of all films
The End of Prohibition (to ban alcohol)
Early 20th century, liquor was cheap but caused problems
The Temperance movement worked to ban alcohol
Many thought it was wrong to drink when troops were fighting
1915-1917 every province except Quebec had prohibition laws
1920-1930 provinces cancelled prohibition.  After the war people wanted to drink
Prohibition in the USA until 1933
This caused an underground crime wave
Chicago was a big crime city in the 1920s
An Inventive Era
Some Canadian inventions before 1920:
James Naismith – Basketball
Sandford Fleming – Timezones
Reginald Fessenden – Wireless Radio Broadcast
1920s Inventions
Invented by Dr. Frederick Banting
Diabetics can’t produce enough insulin to convert food into energy
Plug-in Radio
Edward “Ted” Rogers
Armand Bombardier
Death of his son pushed him to build a proper snowmobile

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